Red River College Glossary
Higher education institutions are home to a great deal of jargon, and we’re no exception. Here’s a glossary to help you understand the terms and language used at Red River College.
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Academic Accommodation: “Accommodation” means a reasonable intervention that helps a student with a Documented Disability access course material, receive the most benefit from course delivery and demonstrate required performance standards. Students who receive academic accommodation are required to meet all learning outcomes and course objectives in order to receive course credit. Accommodation may occur in the classroom or at a field placement. Examples include: assistive technologies, exam modifications (additional time, reduced distraction settings or oral exams), and classroom accommodations (audio recording of class lectures, access to instructor notes). (See Policy A28, Academic Accommodation.)
Academic Authorities Grid: The Academic Authorities Grid guideline outlines the required level at which recommendation, endorsement, approval and notification occur for Red River College programs. It ensures that new programs, changes to existing programs and courses, and program suspensions and cessations are subject to an approved, consistent and efficient process.
Academic Credential: An academic credential is a certificate, diploma, degree, academic transcript, or other document, issued by a recognized institution of higher education that provides evidence of or demonstrates completion of a particular course of study or academic credit resulting in the issuance of documentation of the successful completion of that course of study or credit. (See Policy A31, Academic Credentials and Designations for Instructional Positions.)
Academic Integrity: Academic integrity refers to the requirement to be honest and truthful in all College relationships, activities, and commitments. From these fundamental values of honesty and truth flow consistent, ethical behaviour when engaged in academic work, or any other academic activity. (See Policy S4, Academic Integrity.)
Academic Misconduct: Academic misconduct refers to all dishonest behaviour, whether deliberate or otherwise, related to academic work, or any other academic activity. (See Policy S4, Academic Integrity.)
Academic Probation: Probation involves a set of restrictions, expectations, performance indicators, and timelines placed on a student whose academic progress in a program is unsatisfactory. (See Policy A22, Academic Standards.)
Academic Program Suspension: Student progression is evaluated/assessed in each term. Students who do not meet a prescribed term GPA will be placed on academic probation. (See “suspension.” Also refer to Policy A22, Academic Standards.)
Academic Work: Academic work refers to all forms of student work intended to demonstrate the knowledge and skill a student has acquired during their studies. It refers to course work such as assignments and tests, materials or evaluations used to determine recognition of prior learning, various forms of research, as well as applied learning. All work produced by students during the course of their academic studies with the College is considered academic work, whether or not it is eligible to receive a grade or evaluation. (Based on and see Policy S4, Academic Integrity.)
Academic Year: The academic year at Red River College begins July 1 of one year and runs to June 30 of the next year.
Accommodation Under False Pretenses: Accommodation under false pretenses is misrepresentation in order to receive any academic accommodation on disability-related or compassionate grounds. This may include obtaining medical or other certificates under false or misleading pretenses, altering medical or other certificates, or presenting them in a manner meant to deceive to receive accommodation. (See Policy S4, Academic Integrity.)
Accreditation: Certification by an external agency or professional regulatory body confirming that an academic educational program meets its standards.
Acknowledgement of Participation: An acknowledgement of participation may be issued upon completion of non-credit courses typically delivered through continuing education for which there is no formal assessment of learning.
- Regular Student
A regular student is an applicant who meets the regular admission requirements of the program.
- New Student
A student registering for a particular program at RRC for the first time (new students are not necessarily new to RRC—may have been enrolled in another program or CE previously).
- Continuing Student
An RRC student continuing in a program of study directly from one semester to the next or subsequent semester.
- Mature Student
A mature student is an applicant who is at least 19 years of age and has been out of high school for a minimum of one year at time of application, and does not meet regular admission requirements as specified by each program. Mature student admission may include specific requirements.
- Transfer Student
A transfer student is an applicant who has at least one term of transferable post-secondary courses.
- Undeclared Student
An undeclared student is an applicant who would like to take courses for professional development or general interest and is not seeking a credential. Students are restricted to taking a maximum of two (2) courses per term, and after successfully completing four (4) courses they must apply and be admitted to a program before registering for additional courses.
- Dual Credit Student
A dual credit student is a high school student who may be admitted with permission of the high school. Dual credit students may only be registered in dual credit courses. Dual credit students will only be registered in dual credit courses recognized by the Department of Education or a successor Department.
- Dual Admission Student
A dual admission student is an applicant who is admitted to Red River College and a partner post-secondary institution simultaneously.
- Returning Student
An RRC student returning to a program of study after an absence or break of at least one full semester.
- Visiting Student
A visiting student is from another institution attending with a letter of permission from their home institution. (See Policy A1, Application and Admission to College Programs.)
- Audit Student
An audit student is not required to complete assignments or exams, and grades are not entered to the student’s transcript. No course credit will be given.
- Open Studies Student
A student who registers for a course, for credit, but who is not enrolled in an academic program at the College.
Admission Requirements: A set of criteria for determining a student’s eligibility to enter an educational program. Admission requirements normally include completion of specific high school and/or post-secondary courses or programs at specified levels of academic achievement. Requirements may differ within various disciplines and across departments and schools at Red River College. RRC may set special admission and priority registration requirements for particular groups of applicants including high school graduates, mature applicants, international students, Manitoba residents, individuals applying on the basis of completion of other post-secondary programs, such as a relevant diploma, and those applying, in part, on the basis of prior learning assessment and recognition (PLAR) or the submission of a portfolio. (See Policy A1, Application and Admission to College Programs.)
Applicant – Qualified: Applicants who have met the admission requirements to a program. This category includes applicants who qualified for admission prior to the application being withdrawn.
Applicant – Unqualified: Applicants who have not met or conditionally met the admission requirements for a program. This category includes applicants who did not qualify for admission prior to the application being withdrawn.
Applicant – Qualification Unknown: Applicants who have not yet been assessed or for whom there are outstanding requirements or documents.
Applied Certificate: Applied certificates are short programs designed to provide introductory level skills training in a specific application of an occupation.
Applied Research: In contrast to the basic research conducted by universities, faculty and staff at Red River College perform practical and commercial applied research based on industry needs. Applied research is conducted as directed by our business and industry partners who seek our expertise to develop products and processes and bring them to market.
Apprenticeship Registration: A formal process requiring an individual to meet all the requirements for apprenticeship, including signing an apprenticeship contract, agreement or memorandum of understanding with an employer.
Apprenticeship Technical Training: A period of training/instruction provided to apprentices in a classroom setting away from the job site. The emphasis is on teaching the theory component of the trade or occupation, reinforced where appropriate, with shop/lab training. This training is intended to supplement the on-the-job training.
Apprenticeship Term: The normal length of time required for a person to attain journeyperson status from the time of registration as an apprentice and is usually a combination of both formal training and work experience. The length of time is generally expressed in years and hours per year or in hours.
Articulation Agreement: A formal agreement between one or more colleges and one or more educational institutions or boards of education that recognizes learning achievement, facilitates student progress, minimizes curriculum duplication, and eases the transition from one institution to the other. Some examples follow. (1) A direct-entry, degree-completion program in which learners proceed from a two-year diploma program with a specific GPA to the third year of a degree program in a related field based on a specific set of conditions which must be met. (2) A credit transfer agreement whereby graduates of a two-year diploma program will be granted five credits towards a bachelor of arts degree at partnering universities.
Artificial Intelligence (AI): AI, also known as machine intelligence, is a branch of computer science that aims to imbue software with the ability to analyze its environment using either predetermined rules and search algorithms, or pattern recognizing machine learning models, and then make decisions based on those analyses. In this way, AI attempts to mimic biological intelligence to allow the software application or system to act with varying degrees of autonomy, thereby reducing manual human intervention for a wide range of functions.
Asynchronous Delivery: describes the interaction of instructor(s) and student(s) with the material of a course, program or micro-credential that does not occur at the same time or in the same location. The term is most commonly applied to online learning in which students learn from instruction such as prerecorded video lessons, readings, online discussion boards, and other learning activities that are not delivered in in real time. Technology used to support this type of delivery is the LMS – LEARN. Asynchronous delivery can be enhanced with other tools and resources such as Mediasite Desktop Recorder, FlipGrid, H5P, LinkedInLearning, textbook publisher resources, open educational resources and more.
Attribution: The process of recognizing the source of borrowed materials, regardless of whether they are copyrighted or openly-licensed. To create attribution under a CC license, one can use the Open Attribution Builder or CC License Tool. (See BCcampus website for how to create open textbooks.)
Audit: Taking a course for reasons other than course credit. Auditing students are not required to do assignments or exams, and grades are not entered to students’ transcripts. “AU” is the designation on the transcript. (Based on Policy A3, Auditing Courses.)
Augmented Reality: Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment where the objects that reside in the real-world are enhanced by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, 3D touch, and smell. The overlaid sensory information can be constructive (i.e., additive to the natural environment), or destructive (i.e., masking of the natural environment). This experience is seamlessly interwoven with the physical world such that it is perceived as an immersive aspect of the real environment. In this way, augmented reality alters one’s ongoing perception of a real-world environment, whereas virtual reality completely replaces the user’s real-world environment with a simulated one. Augmented reality is related to two largely synonymous terms: mixed reality and computer-mediated reality.
Badging: Act of giving digital badges. Digital badges (also known as ebadges, or singularly as ebadge) are a validated indicator of accomplishment, skill, quality or interest that can be earned in various learning environments. (From eCampus Ontario, December 2019) (See also Digital Badge).
Behavioural Contract: A behavioural contract is an agreement between the College and a student that specifies certain conditions that are required in order to rectify unacceptable behaviour. The contract will outline the ongoing expectations of acceptable conduct required for the student to continue their studies. The student will continue to be registered for the duration of the contract subject to the conditions outlined. If the contract is broken, further disciplinary action will be taken. The contract may be for a specific period of time or for the full duration of the individual’s program. A copy of the behavioral contract will be placed in the student’s file in the Office of the Registrar. (Based on Policy S2, Student Discipline.)
Billing Unit: An expression of the tuition rate for Red River College programs and courses. Where credit units are applied to courses, one credit unit is equal to one billing unit. (See also Credit Unit.)
Block Credit: Through articulation agreements with other institutions, Red River College may accept college or university credentials (certificate, diploma, degree, for example) or parts of credentials as blocks of transfer credit toward fulfilment of RRC program requirements. Here, student transcripts are reviewed, and transfer credit is awarded as a block of credit rather than on a course-by-course basis.
Blended Learning: Combines face-to-face instruction with online learning in the delivery of a course, program, or micro-credential. Blended learning can also be used in the delivery of training sessions, workshops and other learning opportunities.
Blended Delivery Recommendations:
- Face-to-face and online activities are integrated together in course design so that they reinforce, elaborate on, and complement one another, instead of treating the online component as an add-on or duplicate of what is taught in the classroom.
- Online activity aligns with course learning outcomes and fosters engagement between instructors, students, and content.
- Online content and activities comply with web accessibility standards and use responsive design (display on laptops, tablets and mobile devices effectively).
- Online learning represents 25% to 80% of course delivery time. In exceptional or catastrophic circumstances, the College may revise the amount of course delivery time that is online.
Bridging Program for Internationally Educated Professionals: Partnerships with international institutions have been developed to provide an opportunity for their graduates to transition to RRC through a block credit transfer and then completing a number of RRC academic courses (at least 25% of a RRC program and at least eight (8) months in length, due to student permit regulations). RRC will issue a diploma (the same credential as the one provided to domestic graduates) to all international students who successfully complete the bridging courses (Bridge to Municipal Engineering Technology, for example).
Calendar: The book of rules, regulations, policies, programs and courses for a post-secondary institution. In other jurisdictions, this is known as the Catalogue.
Campus: Red River College defines a campus as a geographic physical location that often includes a cluster of buildings and Centres in relative close proximity. RRC has eight campuses across Manitoba and five of them are located in rural Manitoba.
- Winnipeg Campus Locations: Notre Dame Campus; Exchange District Campus (The Roblin Centre; Paterson GlobalFoods Institute; ACE Project Space; Language Training Centre), and Stevenson Campus.
- Rural Campus Locations: Southport Campus – Southport; Steinbach Regional Campus – Steinbach; Winkler Regional Campus – Winkler; Portage la Prairie Regional Campus – Portage la Prairie; Interlake and Peguis – Fisher River Campus – Selkirk, Peguis First Nation, and Fisher River Cree Nation.
Certificate: Certificates are programs designed to provide skills training and education leading to entry-level employment in a particular occupation. Certificate program learning outcomes are normally found at the basic knowledge and application level. These programs typically correspond to one year of study. (See Policy A12, Issuing College Credentials.)
Cheating: Cheating is the use or distribution, or the attempted use or distribution, of unauthorized materials, equipment, information, or study aids when engaged in academic work. Cheating includes being in possession of unauthorized material during testing, behaviour such as copying from another student, impersonation of a student in an examination or test, disguising one’s own identity, or any other act by which a student attempts to misrepresent their demonstration of academic skills or knowledge. (Based on and see Policy S4, Academic Integrity.)
Citizenship: For reporting purposes, RRC students are defined as belonging to one of four citizenship groups: Canadian, landed immigrants (permanent resident status), refugees, or citizens of other countries.
Classroom Delivery: A method of training delivery that involves a group setting, and that is usually complemented by labs, clinical experiences, practicums and/or work experiences.
Clinical Experience: A method of unpaid training that takes place in a clinical setting in the field of study in which the student is enrolled, typically in health-care programs. Clinicals are taught, monitored and evaluated by RRC instructors or preceptors based on established learning outcomes. Students receive a pass/fail grade. Credits are awarded and clinical experiences are required to graduate.
Cohort: A cohort is a group of students who enroll for the first time in a program, in the same academic year, at the same location.
College-Wide Learning Outcomes: Red River College graduates are ‘career ready.’ They communicate effectively, think critically, embrace innovation, contribute to the community, and have the potential to become leaders in their career and community. (Learn more about College-Wide Learning Outcomes.)
Collusion: Collusion is carrying out, or attempting to carry out, an agreement with any other person to commit an act of academic misconduct. (Based on and see Policy S4, Academic Integrity.)
Competitive Entry: An admission method that involves ranking applications in the order of qualification according to specific admission requirements. Applicants who are most qualified are accepted into the program first. Due to capacity restrictions, not all qualified applicants may be offered admission.
Conditional Admission: is when a person is admitted to Red River College on the condition that the person makes up for a certain requirement that they do not presently meet.
Contact Hour: A contact hour is a period of sixty (60) minutes or less of assigned responsibilities with a class including (but not limited to) exam invigilation, clinical, practicum supervision, worksite visitations, and assisted supervision. Where responsibilities with a class are assigned beyond one hour, the contact shall be calculated hourly using the actual assigned time, rounded up to the nearest half ( ½ ) hour. (MGEU Collective Agreement, 2017 – 2021, Article 62:05(f))
Continuing Education Programs: Continuing education programs and courses may for credit or non-credit, delivered on- or off-campus, online, streaming or face-to-face. They are generally cost-recovery funded and revenue generating, but may also be contracted or brokered.
Continuous Entry: A method by which applicants are accepted into RRC programs at various intervals throughout the academic year.
Contract Cheating: Contract cheating describes the process through which student can have original work produced for them, which they can then submit as if this were their own work. Often this involves payment of a fee and this can be facilitated using online auction sites. (Lancaster, 2006)
Contract Training: Programming that is delivered on a contractual basis, with government, business, industry or a funding organization, to address specific client-identified training needs.
Convocation: A formal ceremony of members of the College for the conferment of College awards.
Co-operative Education: Co-operative education (co-op terms) combines regular classroom learning with paid on-the-job work experience monitored by RRC faculty. To increase career growth potential, training alternates between academic semesters and co-op work terms. Co-op work terms are either mandatory or optional, depending on the academic program. The co-op term does not carry credit units. Students receive a pass/fail grade. (From Policy A12, Procedures)
Co-operative Education Program: Co-operative education program is a method of program delivery that alternates periods of academic study with periods of work experience in appropriate fields of business, industry, government, social services and the professions in accordance with the following criteria:
- Each work term is developed in partnership with the employer and approved by the co-operative education program as a suitable learning environment;
- The student is engaged in productive work for which the student receives remuneration;
- The co-op curriculum supports student learning goals, personal evaluation and reflection;
- The student’s performance in the workplace is supervised and evaluated by the student’s employer;
- The student’s progress during their work term is monitored by the co-operative education program;
- Both work and academic terms are full-time and follow a formalized sequence. The total amount of co-op work experience is normally at least 30% of the time spent in academic study. For programs of two years or less the total amount may be a minimum of 25%. A work term is defined as a minimum of 12 weeks and/or 420 hours full-time paid experience;
- Co-op programs begin and end on an academic term;
- The student completing multiple work terms is normally exposed to the work environment during more than one season of the year. (Modified slightly from Co-Operative Education and Work-Integrated Learning Canada, May 2018.)
Copyright: Copyright: Copyright is the exclusive legal right to produce, reproduce, publish or perform an original literary, artistic, dramatic or musical work. The creator is usually the copyright owner. However, an employer—for example, a film studio—may have copyright in works created by employees unless there is an agreement in place stating otherwise. When you own the copyright in a work, you control how it is used to protect its value. Others who want to use the work have to buy or otherwise get your permission. (Canadian Intellectual Property Office, 2015)
Copyright Material: Copyright material means all original literary, dramatic, musical, artistic and cinematographic works and sound recordings, etc., including books, periodical articles, printed materials, music, photographs, films, broadcast materials, compact disks, audio and video tapes, computer software, and digital material. (Based on Policy A10, Intellectual Property and Copyright.)
Co-requisite Courses: Two or more courses that must be taken at the same time.
Cost-Recovery Funding: A method of funding that involves establishing a tuition that is intended to recover all operating and capital costs associated with program delivery. RRC programs may be funded through a grant, revenue generating or cost-recovery means; or through contracted delivery.
Course Code: A unique identifier that is attached to, and displayed with, each course. It is composed of a four-character subject code and a four-character course number.
Course Registration: A record that a particular student has engaged in a credit or non-credit course at RRC, usually through the process called registration, and paying fees.
Course Outline: The course outline is an official document that ensures student receive accurate and up-to-date information regarding course content, requirements and expectations. Course outline format and template are governed by Policy A5, Course Outlines.
CR (Credit): CR is recorded for credit on the transcript for a course as a result of the recognition of prior learning (RPL) process or a transfer of credit from another recognized training or post-secondary education institution. (See Policy A22, Academic Standards.)
Creative Commons: Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization that helps overcome legal obstacles to the sharing of knowledge and creativity to address the world’s pressing challenges.
Creative Commons License: A Creative Commons License is one of several public copyright licenses that allow the distribution of copyrighted works. It can be used by authors who wish to give people the right to share, use, and build upon a work they have created. (UNESCO, 2013)
Find details of the six Creative Commons licenses here.
Credential: An applied certificate, certificate, diploma, advanced diploma, post-graduate certificate or diploma, degree or another type of official recognition awarded to students by a post-secondary institution in accordance with its Credential Qualifications Framework (Policy A12), its published graduation requirements and provincial legislation. Graduates will receive a parchment that specifies the credential received.
Credit Course: Planned training that has a defined set of learning outcomes or competencies and evaluation processes. Credit courses are part of applied certificate, certificate, diploma, post-graduate certificate, post-graduate diploma, or degree programs, apprenticeship and professional licensing requirements. (See Policy A12)
Credit Program: A credit program is a Red River College-approved occupation-specific education or skills-training endeavour that includes evaluating, documenting and formally recording student achievement in the student’s permanent record. Every credit program is endowed with a specific title, length, admission requirements, course outlines, credit courses, specified learning outcomes or competencies, credit units, completion requirements and credential. (See Policy A12)
Credit Unit: An expression of course value whereby 15 training hours is equal to one credit unit. Some program requirements, such as work experience, do not have associated credit units. Where credit units are applied to courses, one credit unit is equal to one billing unit. (See also Billing Unit.)
Cross-Listed Course: A course developed or offered within two or more departments, faculties or schools within an institution. It may be accepted as a graduation completion requirement in two or more areas or disciplines.
Curriculum: Refers to the learning outcomes, activities, resources and assessments that are the foundation of an academic program. (Modified from Policy A13, Program Life Cycle.)
Day Release Training: Technical training for apprentices where employers release apprentices from work for one day to attend in-school training (usually one day per week).
Degree: Degrees are programs designed to provide advanced skills and knowledge at the baccalaureate level. In addition to the applied learning focus that is the hallmark of all Red River College programs, degrees add higher level critical thinking, inquiry and problem solving skills as well as significant depth and breadth to the learning experience at a higher level than the diploma. Red River College degree programs emphasize applied coursework and active learning, particularly at the upper level (years 3 and 4). Degrees will be a minimum of 120 credits.
Designated Red Seal Trade: A trade or occupation that has been designated by the Canadian Council of Directors of Apprenticeship (CCDA) for inclusion in the Interprovincial Standards ‘Red Seal’ Program. The training and certification is based on a national occupational standard, and provinces and territories participating in the program for that trade or occupation are permitted to affix a Red Seal to the certificates of candidates who meet the standard. Refer also to the definition herein for Interprovincial (IP) Examination.
Designation: A designation is a professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation earned by a person to assure qualification or to warrant competence or expertise to perform a specific job or task. Such designations are subject to the standards of and oversight of professional or regulatory bodies or associations, duly constituted and acting to safeguard the public interest, normally through government laws, for professional certification, trade certification or professional designation. (Based on Policy A31, Academic Credentials and Designations for Instructional Positions.)
Digital Badge: a visual image that communicates the verified achievement of learning, skills and/or competencies, often representing the completion of a micro-credential. Digital badges can be embedded with metadata, which contain information about the credential and provide supporting evidence about how it was assessed and earned.
Digital Credentials: Digital credentials are the digital equivalent of paper-based credentials. Just as a paper-based credential could be a passport, a driver’s license or a membership certificate, a digital credential is a proof of qualification, competence, or verification associated with a particular individual. Both digital and paper-based credentials contain personal information such as the person’s name, birthplace, birthdate, and/or biometric information such as a picture.
Digital Literacy: Refers to an individual’s ability to find, evaluate, and compose clear information through writing and other mediums on various digital platforms. Digital literacy is evaluated based on individual’s grammar, composition, typing skills and ability to produce writings, images, audio and designs using technology. While digital literacy initially focused on digital skills and stand-alone computers, the advent of the internet and use of social media, has caused some of its focus to shift to mobile devices. Digital literacy does not replace traditional forms of literacy, instead building upon the skills that form the foundation of traditional forms of literacy.
Digital Textbook: A digital textbook is a digital book or e-book intended to serve as the text for a class. Digital textbooks may also be known as e-textbooks or e-texts. Digital textbooks are a major component of technology-based education reform. They may serve as the texts for a traditional face-to-face class, an online course or degree, or massive open online courses (MOOCs). (See also E-Book).
Diploma: Diplomas are programs designed to provide comprehensive and advanced skills training and education leading to entry-level employment in a particular occupation. The breadth and depth of training and education lead to the achievement of a higher level of learning and proficiency than a certificate. Graduates are able to apply knowledge, solve problems, undertake analysis, synthesis and evaluation in the area of practice, and they will have begun to explore processes of applied research and/or scholarship. Diploma programs typically correspond to two years of study. Programs with an extended practicum or a cooperative education component will require additional time for completion.
Disability: A permanent or ongoing condition that may hinder an individual’s full and effective participation in their academic studies. Environmental barriers can create additional barriers to full participation in the academic environment:
- Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
- Deaf/hard of hearing
- Intellectual disability
- Specific learning disorder
- Learning disability
- Psychiatric or mental health disability (including fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, brain injury and chronic health conditions)
- Physical/medical disability (including fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, brain injury and chronic health conditions)
- Temporary disability
- Blind/partially sighted
Distance Education: This method of education and skills training allows students to progress through course materials independently. Materials may include textbooks, digital recordings and course manuals. In some cases, telephone and/or email access to course facilitators is provided (see also Independent Study). Students write tests or exams for distance education courses at approved testing sites in or near their communities. Distance education may be complemented by laboratory, clinical or practicum requirements.
DNW (Did Not Write): DNW is recorded when a student does not write the final exam as scheduled and has permission of the Chair to write at a later date. A DNW must be cleared within three (3) calendar months of the course end date. If a grade is not submitted, the DNW will convert to a grade of F. (See Policy A22, Academic Standards.)
Dual Credit Student: A dual credit student is a high school student who may be admitted with permission of the high school. Dual credit students will only be registered in dual credit courses recognized by the Department of Education or a successor Department. (From Policy A1, Application and Admission to College Programs.)
E-book: An electronic book, also known as an eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as “an electronic version of a printed book,” some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but also on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. (See also Digital Textbook).
Elective: An optional course in a recognized program of study. The program’s curriculum may include electives within a chosen specialization as well as outside of it.
Enrolment: Enrolment represents the number of students registered in a RRC course or enrolled in a RRC program at a specified point in time.
Equated: A course(s) that has been delivered through RRC will automatically be considered for credit in all RRC programs providing it is identical (same course learning outcomes, credit hours and assessment criteria or essential components) or equated to a specific program course. (See Policy A14, Recognition of Prior Learning.)
Equity Status: There are four designated equity groups in Canada (defined in the Employment Equity Act of Canada and the Federal Contractor’s Program); therefore, RRC defines its equity applicants and students as women, persons with disabilities, members of visible minorities and Indigenous persons. Individuals with equity status must self-declare in order for RRC to collect, act on and report this information.
Equivalent Course Credit: RRC may grant credit for a specific RRC course(s) on the basis of credit previously obtained either internally through another RRC course(s) externally through courses completed at another institution. Equivalent course credit is not reciprocal unless it is specifically declared.
Experiential Learning: Experiential learning is the process of learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as “learning through reflection on doing.” Hands-on learning is a form of experiential learning but does not necessarily involve students reflecting on their product. Experiential learning is distinct from rote or didactic learning, in which the learner plays a comparatively passive role. It is related to, but not synonymous with, other forms of active learning such as job shadowing, industry field trips, career mentoring and work-study, adventure learning, service-learning, and situated learning.
Exploration Program: Exploration programs are educational opportunities or interventions designed to inform and allow students to “get a feel for” and better understand what various careers entail. Some examples include exploring health science, engineering technology or trades careers. Exploration programs are not formally approved programs and therefore, no formal credentials are provided upon completion.
Expulsion: Expulsion is an action that permanently excludes the student from attending the College. Expulsions will be implemented by the appropriate Vice President with recommendations and documentation provided by a Dean. (Based on Policy S2, Student Discipline.)
Fair Dealing: The fair dealing provision in the Copyright Act permits the use of a copy-right protected work without permission from the copyright owner or the payment of copyright royalties under certain limited scenarios. To qualify for fair dealing, two tests must be passed.
- First, the “dealing” must be for a purpose stated in the Copyright Act: research, private study, criticism, review, news reporting, education, satire and parody. Educational use of a copyright-protected work passes the first test.
- The second test is that the dealing must be “fair.” In landmark decisions in 2004 and 2012, the Supreme Court provided guidance as to what this text means in schools and postsecondary educational institutions.
“Fairness” is determined by weighing certain considerations in regard to a proposed Use of a Copyright-protected Material. The Supreme Court of Canada has identified six factors that may assist in determining fairness:
- The purpose of the dealing,
- The character of the dealing,
- The amount of the dealing,
- Alternatives to the dealing,
- The nature of the work, and
- The effect of the dealing on the work.
The six factors are not exhaustive; other factors may be relevant to a proposed Use of a Copyright-protected Material. In addition, not all factors must be satisfied for a dealing to be considered “fair,” and some factors may be weighed more heavily than others. (See Fair Dealing Guidelines outlined in the RRC P7, Fair Dealing Policy.)
False or Misleading Representation: False or misleading representation is misrepresenting, exaggerating, withholding information or providing any false information for academic or financial benefit. It may involve disclosing false, or withholding accurate, information in communication with College staff during the course of a student’s studies, or in the application process. It may involve falsifying research, data, or information submitted as academic work. It may further involve forging or falsifying official College documents, such as grade reports, transcripts or other records. (Based on Policy S4, Academic Integrity.)
Flipped Classroom: The flipped classroom is an instructional strategy and a type of blended learning that reverses the traditional learning environment by delivering instructional content, often online, outside of the classroom. (Wikipedia, August 2018)
Formal Learning: Formal learning means learning that is usually organized by professional educators and leads to a qualification or academic credential. It traditionally takes place in educational institutions such as colleges and universities. Recognition of formal learning typically leads to a transfer of credit. (See Policy A14, Recognition of Prior Learning.)
Full-time Course Load: Full-time course load is the usual number of credits or hours required in a year for normal progression in a credentialed program.
Geographic Origin: This is generally an applicant’s or student’s permanent address at the time of application to a program or course registration.
Grade: The grade assigned to a course is based on an accumulation of a student’s score on the methods of evaluation of that course. Grades will be recoded on a student’s transcript. (Modified Policy A22)
Grade Point Average (GPA): Credit hours attached to a course will reflect the course hours. These credit hours will be used as the course weighting when calculating the grade point average. A grade point average (GPA) will be calculated by:
- Multiplying the grade points achieved in each course taken by the course credit hours.
- Dividing the weighted total grade points earned by the total credit hours for the courses taken.
GPA = Weighted Total Grade Points Earned
Total Credit Hours
(See Policy A22, Student Evaluation and Progression.)
Gradebook: Is a tool in LEARN that tracks student grades in one place. It allows instructors to drill down to individual student responses or access statistics about the entire class. It helps the College conduct analytics to identify problems or successes in programs. (From Policy A22)
Graduand: A student who has completed the requirements for, but has not yet been awarded a particular credential (certificate, diploma, degree).
Graduate: A graduate is a student that has completed the requisite number of courses in a credentialed academic program, within a designated timeframe, and met the College’s residency requirement. When graduated, a student receives a credential from Red River College.
Grant Funding: A method of funding that involves the provision of a government grant to develop and deliver a RRC credit program (all grant-funded courses are credit courses). RRC programs are funded through either grant-funded, revenue generating, or cost-recovery means; or through contracted delivery.
Headcount: The number of individual students registered in courses in a given period of time. Since students can be registered in more than one program or more than one institution at a time, a unique headcount is sometimes called ‘unduplicated headcount’.
INC (Incomplete): INC is recoded when a student has outstanding course work. INC must be cleared within three (3) calendar months of the course end date. If outstanding requirements are not completed within the three-month period, the grade of INC will be converted to a grade of F. (See Policy A22, Academic Standards.)
Independent Study Course: A College-approved course undertaken by students who have a desire to learn more about an area of study that is not covered within the regular program curriculum, under the supervision of a faculty member. Independent study courses may be mapped into a program as an elective, or may emerge as an additional course that a student takes over and above program requirements. This coursework is assigned a course credit and may involve readings, independent research, field work and a term paper.
Informal Learning: Informal learning means learning that takes place through work and life experiences. Learning activities are not structured or officially evaluated. (See Policy A14, Recognition of Prior Learning.)
Instructional Design: Involves the identification of the knowledge, information, and skill gaps of a group of people, as well as the creation and selection of learning experiences to close this gap. Instructional designers base their learning decisions on cognitive psychology, instructional theory, and best practices.
Instructional Designer: An instructional designer practices the craft and science of instructional design. This person identifies the needs of a target audience and determines the best approach for meeting those needs.
Intellectual Property: Intellectual property shall mean any form of expression or knowledge created with one’s intellect, including inventions, computer software, patents, trademarks, literary, artistic, musical works and know-how. (Based on and see Policy A10, Intellectual Property and Copyright.)
International Pathway: The International Pathway is developed with international post-secondary institutional partners to prepare students and provide admission to specific RRC programs in instances where students do not fully meet the standard admission requirements. Usually, the courses in the Pathway are delivered at the partner institution’s campus (by their instructors), but the curriculum is developed by RRC. When a student has completed a Pathway course(s), they will then be eligible for admission to the RRC academic program for which the Pathway has prepared them.
Interprovincial (IP) Examination: An examination used to determine whether completing apprentices and experienced journeypersons meet the national standard in a designated ‘Red Seal’ trade or occupation. Examinations are based on the national occupational analysis for that trade or occupation. Refer also to the definition herein for Designated Red Seal Trade.
International Visa Student: Also referred to simply as an “international student,” is a student from outside Canada who has a study permit approved by Immigration, Refugee, Citizenship Canada (IRCC).
Joint Delivery Program: A program that is owned by RRC but is delivered jointly with a partner (usually another post-secondary institution). RRC will be responsible for quality assurance, and there will be some defined, shared responsibility for course delivery, student engagement and other aspects of program delivery.
Joint Program: A joint program is one that is owned, delivered and often developed jointly by RRC and another post-secondary institution. The official parchment at graduation will display both the RRC logo and that of the partner institution, as the student received a credential from each institution.
Journeyperson Certification – Compulsory: A prevailing provincial/territorial legislation requirement in which persons entering or working in a designated trade or occupation must possess a Certificate of Qualification or be registered as apprentices, in order to work or practice in that trade or occupation. Those working in the trade or occupation prior to the compulsory requirement may be eligible for exemption from this requirement by the provincial/territorial authorities. In some jurisdictions, the Certification Program is referred to as the “Trades Qualification (TQ) Program.”
Journeyperson Certification Only: A provision of prevailing provincial/territorial legislation that provides for the certification of persons at the journeyperson level only but makes no provision for the registration and training of persons as apprentices. This provision is often incorporated to reduce barriers to the mobility of qualified workers.
Journeyperson Certification – Voluntary: A provision of prevailing provincial/territorial legislation that provides a voluntary opportunity for eligible journeypersons working in a specific designated trade or occupation to become certified. In some jurisdictions, the certification program is referred to as the “Trades Qualification (TQ) Program.”
Lab: A lab may be a course or a component of a course that takes place at Red River College or other specified laboratory facilities where students learn, practice and demonstrate critical competencies.
Learning Outcomes: Learning outcomes refer to the knowledge, skills and attitudes students are expected to demonstrate as a result of the learning process. Outcomes may be identified at a lesson, module, unit, course, program and/or college-wide level. (Modified from Policy A13, Program Life Cycle.)
Learning Management System (LMS): A learning management system is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of educational courses or training programs. (From Wikipedia, August 2018)
LEARN: LEARN is Red River College’s learning management system. LEARN is used by both distance education as well as face-to-face programs. LEARN is an ideal place to distribute course materials from, deliver testing/quizzing, and accept assignments. LEARN has a robust gradebook system as well as many advanced features such as the rubric tool and a competency/learning outcomes tracking system. (From TLTC website, August 2018.)
Letter of Permission: Students may take courses at other post-secondary institutions for transfer credit provided their home institution approves the courses in advance, with a letter of permission.
LMS (Learning Management System): A Learning Management System (LMS) is a software application or web-based technology for managing the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting, and delivery of education and skills training programs. An LMS is also used for continuing education, professional development, credentialing, online events, and eLearning programs. The LMS used at RRC is called Brightspace Learning Management System created by D2L.
Methods of Evaluation: A student’s final grade in a course will be determined by evaluation methods based on the learning outcomes of the course. Examples of evaluation methods include:
- quizzes, assessments, mid-term assessments and final examinations
- laboratory or shop work
- written assignments, essays and term papers
- log book
- case studies
- capstone projects
- oral presentations
- supervised practical experience
- ongoing formative and summative assessment
- participation and attendance (Modified from Policy A22, Academic Standards.)
Micro-credential: A certification of assessed learning that is additional, alternate, complementary to or a formal component of a formal qualification.
Mobile Learning: On-the-go learning that takes place with a hand-held device, such as a mobile phone, tablets, etc. (From eCampus Ontario, December 2019)
National Occupational Classification (NOC) Code: An alpha and numerical indicator identifying a trade or occupation in the National Occupational Classification publication. This code replaces the previously used Canadian Classification and Dictionary of Occupations (CCDO) Code.
NC (Not Complete): NC is recorded when a student is unsuccessful in a Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) process. (See Policy A22, Academic Standards.)
New Immigrant Student: Usually known as a “permanent resident,” a new immigrant student is a “person who has legally immigrated to Canada but is not yet a Canadian citizen” (IRCC).
Non-Credit Courses: Courses that are designed to improve career opportunities or personal skills. These courses are not part of a credit program; therefore, they do not lead to the award of a Red River College credential or meet requirements for licensure. Non-credit course codes include a four-digit alpha and a four-digit numeric format.
Non-formal Learning: Non-formal learning means learning usually offered by a sector, professional group or a company to deal with specific training needs. Formal assessment may or may not be included. (See Policy A14, Recognition of Prior Learning.)
NR (Not Recorded): NR is recorded if an instructor has not submitted a grade within three months of a course end date. (Based on and see Policy A22, Academic Standards.)
Occupational Analysis – Province/Territory: A document which lists the blocks, tasks, sub-tasks, activities and functions that are performed by journeypersons in a designated trade or occupation within a specific province/territory.
Official Transcript: An official transcript means a transcript received from the post-secondary institution which issues same.
Original Transcript: Original transcript means a transcript that is provided by the applicant or high school, and retained by Red River College. (See Policy A1, Application and Admission to College Programs.)
Original Document: Original document means property of the applicant provided to the institution for the purposes of admission. (See Policy A1, Application and Admission to College Programs.)
Online Learning – Online learning is a method of delivering education and skills training at a distance, without the student needing to attend classes in person and on-campus. Online learning may be synchronous or asynchronous.
- Synchronous online learning allows students to log in to a course at a designated time to meet with the instructor and other students. Students will hear the instructor and other students and see text, graphics and / or video streaming.
- Asynchronous online learning allows students to access a course online by logging in at any time it is convenient. Students will have email and telephone access to an instructor. And depending on the course design, students may communicate with the instructor and students using collaboration tools.
Open Access: In general terms, scholarly research that is published in open access is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions (although it does require that proper attribution of works be given to authors). (Canadian Association of Research Libraries)
Open Educational Resources (OER): Teaching, learning, and research resources that, through permissions granted by their creator, allow others to use, distribute, keep, or make changes to them. OER are teaching resources that have an open-copyright licence (such as one from Creative Commons), or they are part of the public domain and have no copyright. Depending on the license used, OER can be freely accessed, used, re-mixed, improved, and shared. (From BCcampus Open Ed, January 2020)
Open Pedagogy: Open pedagogy is the practice of engaging with students as creators of information rather than simply consumers of it. It is a form of experiential learning in which students demonstrate understanding through the act of creation. (From eCampus Ontario, January 2020)
Parchment: The certificate, diploma or degree parchment is the official document issued by Red River College that certifies successful completion of all the requirements of an approved academic program of study at the College. The parchment is a scroll of paper embossed with the name, crest and seal of Red River College and signed by the Dean of the School, Registrar and President. It includes the graduate’s name, the date, the credential awarded and any defining characteristics (e.g., program, field of study) where applicable.
Part-Time Program Enrolment: There are two types of part-time program enrolment: (1) students enrolled in programs that have a part-time delivery, who work through courses as they are offered; and (2) students enrolled in full-time programs, who choose to work through their courses on a part-time basis.
Part-Time Student: A part-time student is one enrolled in a RRC program and taking less than:
- 15 hours per week per semester (1-week period) – certificate, diploma and apprenticeship programs
- 12 hours per week (less than 12 weeks) — Basic Education programs
Pathway: Also referred to as a learning pathway, a pathway is usually a set of courses or other educational interventions developed or customized to bridge the gap between a potential RRC students’ education and skills and the eligibility requirements for admission into a specific RRC academic program. Such pathways assist the potential student in achieving the necessary requirements for admission. Pathways are not approved academic programs and therefore, no formal credentials are provided upon completion. Some RRC examples include Pathway to Health Programs and Pathway to Engineering Technology Programs.
Persister: A student who either continues in a program from the point of enrolment to graduation or withdrawal, or who withdraws and returns to the same program within five years.
Plagiarism: Plagiarism is representing the words, ideas, research, or data created by, or belonging to, someone else as if it were your own. Plagiarism may range from close imitation or paraphrasing the thoughts of another, to the submission of an entire academic work created by someone else. All forms of plagiarism share a common element: material is being presented as the student’s original academic work, without acknowledgement, use of quotation marks, citations, or other references deemed appropriate by College staff. Plagiarism also includes submitting the same work for credit in more than one course. Students who want to submit work that was prepared for another course must first receive instructor permission. (Based on Policy S4, Academic Integrity.)
Post-Graduate Certificate: Post graduate certificates are designed to build on skills and knowledge gained in previous post-secondary level education or lead to a higher degree of specialization in the same or related field. Program emphasis is placed on achieving advanced levels of learning outcomes for specialized or skilled work.
Post-Graduate Diploma: Post-baccalaureate diplomas are programs of study that are open to those who have graduated from a recognized post-secondary institution diploma, advanced diploma or baccalaureate degree program. These programs are intended to deepen knowledge and skills and provide specialized industry related education and skills training to enhance and/or complement a previously earned credential(s).
Post-Secondary Programs: Post-secondary programs are programs that require secondary school completion (Grade 12 or equivalent).
Practicum: Practicum refers to the experience by which professional capabilities are developed in a work setting, with the aim of meeting professional registration requirements. The work experience is often a requirement of the academic program, with learning content and assessment developed based on standards and professional competencies as defined by the accrediting body. Other terms used to describe a practicum work experience include professional practice placement, clinical placement or professional placement (O’Shea, 2014).
Pre-requisite Course: A course that must be successfully completed prior to entering the course for which it is a pre-requisite.
Preceptorship. A structured, supportive period of transition from learning to applying a complex skill (e.g., nursing) that requires a long and rigourous period of applied education. Preceptorship is similar to apprenticeship and serves as a bridge during the transition from student nurse to practitioner.
Preparatory Program: A preparatory program is the same as a transition program (see definition below).
Probation, Performance Behavioural or Learning Contracts: These contracts establish specific requirements, tasks or conditions that individual students must meet within a stipulated time period.
Professional Accreditation: The process of quality assurance through which it is ascertained that a program of study complies with standards of education and skills training established by professional authorities, with the goal of ensuring that graduates from such programs meet the academic and registration requirements established by the profession. For example, engineering technology programs in Canada must obtain accreditation through Technology Accreditation Canada (TAC).
Program: A program is represented by a defined set of credit courses and other requirements leading to an approved credential in a specific field of study (see also Credit Program).
Program Inventory: A document that identifies all current RRC-approved programs. The inventory is available through Institutional Analysis and Planning.
Program Life Cycle: Program Life Cycle refers to the evolution of a program over time, from initiation through development, delivery, evaluation, revision, and where applicable, suspension and termination. (See Policy A13 – Program Life Cycle.)
Program Students: Program students means students who are admitted into a program under all admission categories excluding undeclared student (as that term is defined herein). (See Policy A1, Application and Admission to College Programs.)
Qualifications Framework: A qualifications framework is a reference document to assist in situating individual qualifications within their respective education systems. The document:
- describes the main purposes and learning expectations for each qualification in a particular education system, and the relationship between the different qualifications;
- provides the continuum of learning expectations along which any new qualifications can be placed in that education system;
- provides a context for policies on credit transfer and qualification recognition that facilitate lifelong learning;
- assists in comparing one’s own standards with those in other education systems, whether for purposes of study elsewhere or the export of programs to other jurisdictions.
A qualifications framework is an important recognition tool that facilitates the mobility of internationally trained individuals between countries that have different education systems and issue different qualifications. (See Policy A12, Issuing College Credentials.)
Recognition of Prior Learning: Recognition of prior learning (RPL) is a process that involves the identification, documentation, assessment and recognition of formal (specifically transfer credit), informal and non-formal learning acquired through education, work and life experience. (See Policy A14, Recognition of Prior Learning.)
Refugee Student: A refugee student is “A permanent resident who applied for and received permanent resident status in Canada after their refugee claim was accepted” (IRCC).
Registration: A process of student enrollment in individual courses that often requires paying tuition and student or ancillary fees.
Reprimand: A reprimand is an action that officially recognizes a violation of good conduct and advises the student to avoid future infractions. An initial reprimand may be oral in nature. If a student fails to comply with this reprimand, a written notification of the reprimand will be issued. It will outline the violation and the implication of further misconduct. A copy of the written notification will be placed in the student’s file in the Office of the Registrar. The student shall be permitted to continue as a student in the College. (Based on Policy S2, Student Discipline.)
Requirement: A course that must be successfully completed in order to complete a credential and graduate.
Sabotage: Sabotage is the deliberate destruction, disruption or tampering of another person’s academic work or learning environment. (Based on and see Policy S4, Academic Integrity.)
Seats: Seats refers to the number of students that may be admitted into a program, usually by academic year and sometimes by semester or term. Seats may also refer to (1) the number of students in a cohort and (2) to the capacity of a classroom, shop or lab.
Self-Paced Learning: Self-paced learning refers to a type of asynchronous instruction that allows a person to control the flow of the courseware, usually within a specified timeframe, such as a semester or term. (Adapted from eCampus Ontario, December 2019)
Semester: A period of instruction at RRC, which normally consists of 15 weeks of courses and is usually associated with the Fall (September to December) and Winter (January to April) teaching sessions, and sometimes to Spring and Summer sessions, in which the instructional period may be condensed. Normally, institutions offer a full range of courses in the Fall and Winter semesters and a limited number of courses during the condensed Spring and Summer semesters. A trimester program provides an opportunity for year round study. (See also Term.)
Senior Academic Committee (SAC): SAC provides strategic leadership in implementing the Academic Mission of the College. It serves as a forum for discussion and decision-making on issues of academic policy and practice, and is a medium for the sharing of program information. (Guide to SAC, 2018.)
Shop: This method of training generally involves the use of an on-campus shop or mobile training lab to assist students in developing industry-related skills required for the course or program. Students are monitored and evaluated by RRC instructors based on established learning outcomes or competencies. Shop hours are considered the same as course hours (15 hours equals one credit unit), and may be integrated within a course. Students receive a percentage grade or a pass/fail. (From Policy A12, Procedures)
Simulation: This method of training involves the use of an on-campus simulation learning centre to provide practice-based training related to a student’s field of study. Students are monitored and evaluated by RRC instructors based on established learning outcomes or competencies. Fifteen hours of simulation time is equal to one (1) credit unit. Students receive a percentage grade or a pass/fail.
Social Media Learning: Social media learning refers to the acquisition of information and skills through social technologies. Social learning can occur through online social networking platforms, blogs, online talk radio, and wikis. (From eCampus Ontario, November 2019)
Specialization: Refers to the first level or second level of differentiation in a diploma or baccalaureate program. As a first level of differentiation, it is often synonymous with “major” in a 4-year program, a “concentration” in a 3-year program or a “stream” in a 2-year program. As a second level of differentiation, a specialization can be represented by a minor or a concentration in a 4-year program. In professional programs “specialization” may also mean route, stream or another form of focus in a subject area.
Special Selection: Special selection refers to those programs that have admission requirements beyond academic requirements. Applicants to special selection programs may need to demonstrate their suitability by, for example, submitting a portfolio, taking some testing, completing a take-home assignment, participating in an interview or in multiple mini interviews.
Statement of Achievement: Statement of achievement programs develop fundamental competencies, general knowledge and foundational skills for a limited range of activities in a specific application of an occupation. Graduates will be able to work in a limited range of activities undertaking a prescribed range of functions. A statement of achievement program provides preparation for employment at entry-level positions in the field of work or study.
Streaming Media: Streaming media refers to video and audio that is downloaded to a computer from the Internet as a continuous stream of data and is played as it reaches the destination computer (in contrast to downloaded media). (Modified from eCampus Ontario, January 2020)
Student Contact Hours: The number of hours that a student and an instructor are in contact with each other. Usually this number is derived from the number of scheduled hours that a course meets or estimated based on the number of hours that a student is expected to attend during an enrolment period.
Suspension: Suspension is an action that excludes the student from a course, practicum, program or the College on a temporary basis. The length of suspension shall either be for a specific period of time, or until such time as the student satisfies the conditions imposed by the appropriate College authority at the time of the suspension. (Based on and see Policy S2, Student Discipline and Policy A22, Academic Standards.)
Synchronous Delivery: Describes the interaction of instructor(s) and student(s) with the material of a course, program or micro-credential that occurs at specific time but not in the same face-to-face location. The term is most commonly applied to online learning in which students learn from instructors and/or peers in real time, but not in person. Technology used to support this type of delivery include MS Teams and WebEx.
Technicians: Specialists who have expertise with, and precise knowledge of, technical equipment and practices. They install, service, calibrate and troubleshoot equipment. Technicians also provide support, monitor production control, define problems and generally use a “hands-on” approach in their work.
Technologists: Technical experts who use their knowledge and skills to solve problems using principles underlying their respective disciplines. Responsibilities may include supervision, designing equipment, processes or systems, project management and participating in short- and long-range planning.
Term: A term is an academic period of study defined by the College (see also Semester).
Transcript: The official document provided by RRC that verifies the student’s enrollment and achievement in an institution.
Transfer Credit: Transfer credit may be granted either internally or externally. Internally, credit may be transferred for courses completed in one program and applied to another program. Externally, credit may be transferred for courses completed at another recognized post-secondary institution in Canada or internationally.
Transition Program: Transition programs are usually courses or educational interventions that prepare students for post-secondary education. These programs may be designed for specific groups of students; for example, those coming directly from Grade 12, older adults who have not been in school for a number of years, those planning to make career changes mid-life. Transition programs are not approved academic programs and therefore, no formal credentials are provided upon completion.
Unauthorized Collaboration: Unauthorized collaboration is submitting academic work that was created in collaboration with any other person, when such collaboration did not have the instructor’s approval. (Based on and see Policy S4, Academic Integrity.)
Virtual Classroom: The virtual classroom refers to a digital learning environment that takes place over the Internet, rather than inside of a physical classroom. It is implemented through software that allows the instructor and students to interact. (From eCampus Ontario, December 2019)
Virtual Reality (VR): An experience taking place within simulated and immersive environments that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality can include entertainment (i.e., gaming) and educational purposes (i.e., medical or military training). Other distinct types of VR style technology include augmented reality and mixed reality.
Voluntary Withdrawal: A student who formally withdraws from one or more courses after the add/drop period ends and before 80% of the course duration will have a voluntary withdrawal (VW) recorded on his/her transcript. Unofficial withdrawals (no documentation submitted to the Student Services Centre by the deadline) will result in courses being assigned a grade of “F.” Students may not withdraw from courses for which they have already completed all course work or received a final grade. Fees may be adjusted in accordance with the billing/refund table. Courses dropped after the five business day add/drop period appear on the transcript with a designation of VW.
Web-Facilitated Course: The use of LEARN to supplement and enhance a course that is delivered primarily face-to-face in a classroom. Examples of how to use LEARN in web-facilitated delivery include: communicating with students, distributing course content, collecting assignments, posting grades, and providing course information such as course outlines.
Webinar: A seminar or workshop where the facilitator and participants view the same screen simultaneously. A facilitator usually controls the audio component and individuals are sometimes able to participate by chatting via text, answering polls, raising (digital) hands, and asking questions. (From eCampus Ontario, November 2019)
Withdrawal (Course): A student’s status whereby the student has voluntarily and formally withdrawn from a course, and has not completed the requirements of the course.
Withdrawal (Program): A student’s status whereby the student has either voluntarily and formally withdrawn from a program or has been required to discontinue by RRC, and has not completed the requirements of the program.
Withdrawal – Authorized (AW): A student who must withdraw from a course or program for a medical or compassionate reason may be given an authorized withdrawal (AW). AWs will be recorded on the student’s transcript. AWs are not included in the maximum number of voluntary withdrawals permitted in some programs. AW requests must be supported by satisfactory documentation and approved by the Chair.
Withdrawal – Involuntary (IW): A student may be withdrawn from a course or program for behavioural reasons. An involuntary withdrawal is initiated by the program or the College. IWs will be recorded on the student’s transcript. A student who is involuntarily withdrawn may not be eligible for any refund of tuition and fees. The student’s transcript will record the transcript notation “Program Suspension” during the suspension period.
Work-Integrated Learning (WIL): Work-integrated learning describes educational activities that intentionally integrate learning within an academic institution with practical application in a workplace setting, relevant to a student’s program of study or career goals. This structured integration of theory and practice differentiates WIL from other experiential learning activities that provide students with exposure to the workplace such as job shadowing, industry field trips, career mentoring and work-study. (Sattler, 2013)
(The WIL typology adopted at RRC focuses on seven types of WIL activities, grouped under three main categories as follows. The typology is adapted from BHER, 2016 and Sattler, 2013)
- Systematic training, where most learning is done in the workplace.
- Apprenticeships: A combination of in-school training for a skilled trade or occupation, and on-the-job workplace training. (Other terms include vocational education; VET)
- Structured work experience, where students become familiar with the world of work as part of a university or college program.
- Co-op: Periods of study alternate with work placements, offering students a structured approach that integrates their studies with work experience in a related field.
- Internships: Work experiences, typically lasting a year or more, at or near the end of a study program. (Other terms used include sandwich course; virtual internship)
- Mandatory professional practice: Work arrangements (often) required for a professional license or designation. (Other terms used include practicum; field education; field work; field placement; clinical placement; preceptorship; simulated clinical experience)
- Field experience: Placements and work-related experiences that prepare students for professional or occupational fields, but are not required for a professional license. (Other terms used include placement; externship; field work; simulated work experience)
- Institutional partnerships are activities or programs offered by a university, college or polytechnic, and designed to achieve specific industry or community goals.
- Applied research projects: Students taking on real-world project, often with industry partners as clients and the students as service providers. (Other terms used include industry-led research project; industry-linked project; industry project; Riipen)
- Service learning: A range of activities intended to provide equal benefit to the service provider (the student) and the recipient (the community) while maintaining a focus on learning. (Other terms used include intentional service learning; community-based learning; field education)
Work-Based Training: Learning that is linked to the work role and has three interrelated components: learning structured to the workplace, on-the-job, and off-the-job learning opportunities.
Work Experience: A method of training that involves unpaid on-the-job training. Students are supervised by employers and monitored by RRC faculty. Where work experience is an element of the program, it is a requirement for graduation and credit is awarded. Students receive a pass / fail grade or a complete / not complete. Minimum length is one week.